The skateboard essentially consists of three main parts – the deck, the trucks and the wheels.
However, the full skateboard includes a total of 12 different individual parts. Each of these elements has a specific function and requires fine-tuning.
The most complex and complex component is the skateboard truck.
Trucks hold the deck a few inches above the ground, support the skateboarder’s weight, and are responsible for maintaining the wheels.
If you want to assemble your skateboard with selected components, all you need is a good tool for skating for tightening wheels and installing hardware and adjusting the height of the collet.
Let’s take a closer look at the anatomy of a skateboard.
The deck is the wooden platform of the skateboard, where the rider puts his feet and to which other parts are attached.
They come in a variety of sizes and shapes, but most pasta skateboard decks have a kick in the tail and bow.
Skateboard decks have subtle differences that distinguish the front (bow) from the rear (tail), so they are not exactly symmetrical.
The deck also includes some concave and more or less gentle curve from end to end – rocker or camber.
Generally speaking, a narrow skateboard is more responsive and easy to turn, but will also be less stable; the wide board provides stability but is more difficult to maneuver.
If you are buying your first skateboard, place different decks on the ground and choose a size that is slightly narrower than the length of your legs.
In other words, when your heels are the same on one side, your toes should protrude about an inch from the other side.
A standard deck is made of seven layers of thick 1/16-inch hard maple veneer, laminated with PVA glue and pressed to a complex shape.
The grip tape is a sandpaper-like sheet that helps the skateboarder catch the skateboard.
The trucks are bolted to the deck.
Two sets of four holes were drilled in the deck. A total of eight bolts hold the trucks on board.
You can loosen them for easier turning, but make sure they are tight enough that you can’t unhook them with your fingers.
Trucks are the central and most complex part of the skateboard.
They have the mechanics that allow the rider to skate, turn and get in the air.
A skateboard truck is made of steel and is extremely durable. It often outlives all other components of the skateboard.
The truck consists of several parts: the base plate, the collet, the hanger, the bushings and the axles.
The width of the truck is determined by the length of its hanger (127-187 mm) and the axle (193-254 mm).
After all, ideally, the rider wants the outside of the wheels slightly hidden on either side of the deck.
So ultimately the choice of deck affects the correct size of the trucks on board.
The base plate is a flat and rigid base metal plate with machine-drilled holes that are mounted to the deck of the skateboard.
The stud is a large threaded pin – or large bolt – that protrudes from the base plate.
The hanger attaches to the other end of the king.
This is a T-shaped metal component that absorbs all shocks. As a result, this is the heaviest and strongest part of the skateboard.
It is usually made of steel, but lighter, more durable and more expensive alloys are also available on the market.
In the hanger are the axles that protrude and include both wheels.
Each truck has two bushings, the elements that allow the skateboard to rotate.
The bushings are two small rubber cups that rotate when the skateboarder leans to the left or right.
They are pressed between the base plate and the hanger, ie. the metal parts of each skateboard.
There is a bolt that holds the bushings and the hanger on the collet, which can be tightened or loosened to adjust how easily the board rotates.
The bushings have different levels of hardness, depending on the driving conditions.
Technical and heavy riders often choose firmer bushings; cruisers and light skaters prefer softer bearings for easy turning.
The bushings may need to be replaced when they wear out and start to crack.
The axles, also known as suspension shafts, connect the two wheels of each truck and are held in place by nuts on the axle.
They range from 193 to 254 mm and set the standard for measuring trucks.
As a general rule, the length of the axle should place the wheels within a quarter of an inch of the edge of the deck.
Skateboard wheels should move smoothly on their axles.
The riser is an optional element that can be placed between the base plate and the deck.
This is a plastic or rubber pad that absorbs the impact and offers an extra cushion.
This can increase the life of the wooden deck by protecting it from sudden and powerful shocks transmitted through wheels and trucks.
They also add space between the wheels and the underside of the deck to prevent the wheels from hitting the underside of the board.
They make it difficult to land with flip tricks because they lift the center of gravity of the skater.
A full skateboard has four urethane wheels attached to the trucks and are categorized by diameter and hardness.
They range in size from 50 mm to 70 mm + and have hardness scale (durometer), which passes from 78A to 100A +.
Big and soft wheels are more forgiving and better absorb shocks. They are good for cruise and vert travel and range in size from 67 mm to 80 mm.
The small and hard wheels are fast and good for performing tricks and shredding skate parks and sidewalks. They range in size from 52 mm to 58 mm.
The full skateboard uses four axial nuts that hold the wheels in place and rotate.
They tend to wear out quickly, so they need to be replaced from time to time.
The standard size is 5/16 “for trucks that have 8 mm axles.
Most skateboards assembled in skateboard shops have two small washers between the axle nuts and between the inner bearings of the hanger.
The washers help the wheels to rotate smoothly.
A full skateboard has a total of eight bearings – two in each of the four polyurethane wheels.
They look like rings with small steel balls inside.
The bearings fit on both sides of the wheel and allow it to rotate smoothly on the axle.
The most expensive bearings are ceramic bearings.
These high-efficiency bearings absorb the heat generated by the friction of a fast-spinning wheel and make the skateboard run fast.
However, precision steel bearings are the most common bearings used in skateboards.
Sometimes there is an aluminum spacer inside the wheel, between the bearings, which keeps everything aligned.
The bearings are classified for their factor ABEC (Engineering Ring Bearing Committee). That is, they are valued for their quality and smoothness.
The ABEC scale varies from 1 (low quality and cheap) to 9 (better and more expensive).